Análisis del potencial genotóxico y carcinógeno asociado a los cigarrillos electrónicos

  • Isaac Armendáriz - Castillo UTE
  • Santiago Guerrero UTE
  • Antonella Vera-Guapi UTE
  • Tiffany Cevallos-Vilatuña UTE
  • Jennyfer M. García-Cárdenas UTE
  • Patricia Guevara-Ramírez UTE
  • Andrés López-Cortés UTE
  • Andy Pérez-Villa UTE
  • Verónica Yumiceba UTE
  • Ana K. Zambrano
  • Paola E. Leone UTE
  • Cesar Paz y Miño Centro de Investigacion Genetica y Genomica
Palabras clave: cigarrillos, electrónicos, genotóxicos, carcinógeno.

Resumen

Diferentes estudios que comparan riesgos a la salud asociados a los usos de cigarrillos electrónicos y convencionales, se enfocan principalmente en compuesto químicos en común entre ambos sistemas. Por lo tanto, realizamos una revisión de compuestos químicos exclusivos de cigarrillos electrónicos. Los criterios de selección incluyeron artículos que reporten composición química y riesgos asociados a la salud, sin conflictos de interés. Todos los compuestos químicos fueron clasificados según el código del “Chemical Abstracts Service” para sustancias químicas. Un total de 57 compuestos fueron identificados en cigarrillos electrónicos. Para analizar los efectos carcinogénicos, un set de genes, previamente reportados como desregulados en el epitelio oral de usuarios de cigarrillos electrónicos, fueron genómicamente analizados en 32 estudios del “PanCancer Atlas”. Los riesgos a la salud más importantes incluyen: irritación de tracto respiratorio, ojos y piel con un 50% de incidencia. Los tipos de cáncer con mayor riesgo identificados fueron: ovario, útero, vejiga, pulmón, esófago y estómago. A pesar de ser considerados como menos dañinos que los cigarrillos convencionales, el uso de cigarrillos electrónicos no es recomendado para ningún usuario, debido a falta de evidencia experimental.

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Publicado
2020-05-25
Sección
Artículos de revisión