Elaeis oleifera (Kunth) Cortés: una palma abandonada de la Amazonía ecuatoriana

  • Rommel Montúfar
  • Claude Louise
  • Timothy Tranbarger
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El conocimiento sobre la biología de las palmas ecuatorianas es todavía limitado. Un caso particular constituye la palmera aceitera americana, Elaeis oleifera (Kunth) Cortés descrita para Ecuador en el año 1986. El género Elaeis tiene una distribución trans-Atlántica (África-América), con E. oleifera proveniente del Neotrópico y E. guineensis Jacq. del Africa. Se ha sugerido como hipótesis que E. oleifera deriva de poblaciones de E. guineensis, las cuales divergieron hace 15 millones de años. A nivel local, las poblaciones de E. oleifera presentan una distribución disyunta, con poblaciones aisladas a lo largo de la América Central, Amazonía, Guyanas, el Chocó y la costa caribeña de Colombia y Venezuela; frecuentemente asociadas a asentamientos humanas o arqueológicos. A pesar de la separación espacial e histórica entre ambas especies, no existen barreras reproductivas para la generación de híbridos fértiles. Esta importante característica reproductiva ha permitido que E. oleifera constituya actualmente la principal fuente de información genética para el mejoramiento y adaptabilidad de las poblaciones comerciales de E. guineensis a lo largo del planeta. Las poblaciones ecuatorianas de E. oleifera provenientes de Taisha (Provincia de Morona Santiago) -con características morfológicas, reproductivas y bioquímicas agronómicamente importantes-  han ido utilizadas para la creación de híbridos comerciales, que hoy en día se siembran en las regiones tropicales.




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Cómo citar
MONTÚFAR, Rommel; LOUISE, Claude; TRANBARGER, Timothy. Elaeis oleifera (Kunth) Cortés: una palma abandonada de la Amazonía ecuatoriana. Revista Ecuatoriana de Medicina y Ciencias Biológicas, [S.l.], v. 39, n. 1, mayo 2018. ISSN 2477-9148. Disponible en: <http://remcb-puce.edu.ec/index.php/remcb/article/view/584>. Fecha de acceso: 21 nov. 2018 doi: https://doi.org/10.26807/remcb.v39i1.584.
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