Participación de las respuestas inmunes en el control de la COVID-19

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Cristina Pérez

Resumen

La COVID-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa que devino en pandemia  en 2019 y es provocada por el coronavirus SARS- CoV-2. Esta sucinta revisión actualiza conocimientos acerca de la respuesta inmune del anfitrión ante el virus, dada su importancia en la resolución de la enfermedad y protección ante reinfecciones.


Una actividad concertada entre los distintos componentes de la respuesta inmune sería crucial para enfrentar la virosis, por lo cual los individuos deficientes tendrían mayor riesgo de desarrollar una enfermedad grave. La gravedad depende de múltiples factores, como estado de salud, sexo, etnia, edad, etc.


Si bien existe una gran variabilidad, la magnitud de la respuesta inmune parece perdurar por lo menos 5 meses. Entre sus componentes, los anticuerpos circulantes, al disminuir la carga viral, serían particularmente útiles en los comienzos de la infección, pero no regularían su gravedad, que depende fundamentalmente de los linfocitos T CD4+ y CD8+.


Aunque el índice de reinfección parece ser bajo, no se ha hallado ninguna correlación categórica entre la magnitud de la respuesta inmune y el grado de protección ante la COVID-19, tanto primaria como participaciónsecundaria. Esto sugeriría ser cauteloso ante la instancia de interpretar análisis clínicos y tomar decisiones sanitarias y sociales.

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Pérez C. Participación de las respuestas inmunes en el control de la COVID-19. REMCB [Internet]. 6 de mayo de 2022 [citado 25 de septiembre de 2022];43(1). Disponible en: https://remcb-puce.edu.ec/remcb/article/view/918
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